Scientific History of Some Alien Plants In India: Origin, Implications And Culture

  • Dinkarrao Amrutrao Patil SSVPSanstha's L.K.Dr.P.R.Ghogrey Science College, Dhule, Maharashtra
Keywords: Exotic plants, Origin, Culture, India

Abstract

Indian subcontinent has a rich heritage of biodiversity because of its variable geo-climatic conditions. Several exotic plant species survived since ancient period and became an integral part of Indian flora. Nay, they now seem to be iconic plants and are being venerated. They are valued by the Indians for their esteem, culture and welfare. Select 20 exotic  notable species are studied from the standpoint of their origin, distribution, culture and ancient Sanskrit literature. Diverse information about them is adduced from architecture, art, archaeological sites, etymology (philology), anthropology,  ancient Sanskrit and religious scriptures. Some of them were once thought introduced by western rulers in the then India few centuries ago. This belief can be easily negated based on the present investigation. They appeared to have been brought in India during pre-Columbian period. They also appear to be indicators of Indian contacts with various parts of the Old World and interestingly even New World.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Aiyer, A.Y. and Y. Narayan (1956) The Antiquity of Some Field and Forest Flora of India. Bangalore Press, Bangalore, India.

Allchin, F.R. (1969) Early cultivated plants in India and Pakistan. In: The Domestication of Plants and Animals (Ed.Ucko, P.J. and Dimbleby, G.W.) Gerald Duckworth & Col., London, UK.

Anonymous (1966) Wealth of India: A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. Vol. III. New Delhi, India.

Anonymous (1985) The Wealth of India: Raw Materials. Vol.IA(Revised), CSIR, New Delhi, India.

Ashraf, J. (1985) The antiquity of Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum in India. Indica 22:91-101.

Backer, C.A. and R. C. B. Brink Jr. (1963) Flora of Java Vol.III. N.V.P. Noordhoff, Groningen, Netherlands.

Bailey, L.H. (1928) The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture (England Edition) Vol. I-II, New York, USA.

Bailey, L.H. (1949) Manual of Cultivated Plants (Rev. Ed.) The Macmillan Co., New York, USA.

Balfour Edwards (1871-1873) Cyclopedia of India (2nd Ed.) Vol. I-V, Calcutta, India.

Blatter, E.J. (1909) Oh the flora of Kutch. J.Bombay Nat.Hist.Soc. 19:157-176.

Brandis, D. (1874) The Forest of North-West & Central India. The Royal Gardens, Kew, UK. (Repr. Ed.) M/s. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, 1972).

Brown, P. (1949) Indian Architecture (Buddhist and Hindu Periods). D.B. Taraporewala Sons & Co. Bombay (2nd Ed.) Maharashtra, India.

Chao, Chihcheng T. and Robert R. Krueger (2007) The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.): Overview of biology, uses and cultivation. Hort.Science 42(5):1077-1082.

Charak Samhita (1949) Edited with English, Hindi and Gujarati Translations Vol.6. Gulab Kunverba Ayurvedic Society, Jamnagar, India.

Chopra, R.N., Nayar, S.L. and I.C.Chopra (1956) Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. CSIR, New Delhi, India.

Coats, A.M. (1956) Flowers and Their Histories. Hulton Press Ltd., London, UK.

Cunningham Alexander (1879) The Stupa of Bharut: A Buddist Monument Ornamented with Numerous Sculptures Illustrative of Buddhist Legend and History in the Third Century BC., London, UK. (Repr.1962) Indological Book House, Varanasi, India.

Dalzell, N.A. and A.Gibson (1861) The Bombay Flora. Bombay Education Society’s Press, Bombay, India.

DeCandolle A.P. (1882) Origin of Cultivated Species. Hafner Publishing Co., London, UK.

Gupta Shakti M. (1996) Plants in Indian Temple Art. B.R. Publishing Corporation, Delhi, India.

Gupta, S.M. (1996) Plants in Indian Temple Art. B.R. Publishing Corporation, Delhi, India.

Herodotus (440 BC.) Histories-Book 3, Chapter 106 (with an English translation by A.D. Godley, Cambridge) Harvard University Press, 1920.

Jeffreys M.D.W. (1965) Vernacular maize names and some African tribal migrations. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 118:557-573. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1965.tb40728.x

Johannesen Carl. L. (1998) Pre-Columbian /American Sunflower and Maize Images in Indian Temples: Evidence of Contact between Civilizations in India and America. In : Mormons Scripture and the Ancient World Studies in Honor of John L. Sorenson (Ed. Davis Bitton) (Provo, UT:FARMS) pp.351-390.

Johannesen Cart L. and Anne Z. Parker (1989) Maize ears sculpted in 12th and 13th century AD. India as indicators of pre-Columbian diffusion. Economic Botany 43(2):164-180. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02859857

Kajale, M.D. (1996) Palaeobotanical investigations at Balathal: Preliminary results. Man Environ.11:98-102.

Kirit Mankodi (2012) Rani-Ki-Vav, Patan. Director General, Archaeological Survey of India, Janpath, New Delhi, India.

Kirtikar, K.R. and D. Basu (1987) Indian Medicinal Plants (2nd Rev. Ed.) International Book Distributors, Dehradun, India.

Krishna Murthy, K.S. (1931) The Wealth of Susrutha. International Institute of Ayurveda. Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Lardizinsky G. (1975) A New Cicer from Turkey. Notes from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh 34:201-202.

Linnaeus Carl (1753) Species Plantarum (In Latin) Holmiae.

Maab, H.I. and M.Klaas (1995) Intraspecific differentiation of garlic (Allium sativum L.) by isozyme and RAPd markers. Theoretical And Applied Genetics 91:89-97. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00220863

Manilal, K.S. (1980) Malayam plant names from Hortus Malabaricus in modern botanical nomenclature. Bot.Hist.Hort.Malab. pp.70-77.

Marshall, J., Foucher, A. and N.G.Majumdar (1940) The Monuments of Sanchi, Vol.1-3. Calcutta, India.

Nadkarni, K.M. (1914) Indian Plants and Drugs with Their Medicinal Properties and Uses. (Repr.Ed.) Norton & Co., Madras, India.

Naik, V.N. (1998) Flora of Marathwada Vol.I-II. Amrut Prakashan, Aurangabad (M.S.) India.

Nanditha Krishna and M. Amirthalingam (2014) Sacred Plants of India. Penguin Random House India, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.

Norton, J.F. (1977) Major Medicinal Plants, Culture and Uses. CC Thomas Publishers, USA.

Patil, D.A. (1995) Exotic elements in the flora of Dhule district (Maharashtra)-II. Biojournal 7(1-2):1-8.

Patil, D.A. (2007) Origins of Plant Names. Daya Publishing House, Delhi, India.

Pokharia, A.K. and K.S.Saraswat (1998-1999) Plant economy during Kushana period (100-300 AD.) at ancient Sanghol, Punjab. Pragdhara 6(9):75-121+Plates.

Pokharia, A.K., Sekar, B., Jagannath Pal and A L Srivastava (2009) Possible evidence of pre-Columbian transcoceanic voyages based on conventional LSC and AMS 14th C dating of associated charcoal and a carbonized seed of custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) Radiocarbon 51(3):923-930. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200033993

Pullaiah, T. (2002) Medicinal Plants in India.Vol.I-II. Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.

Purseglove, J.W. (1968) Tropical Crops 2 Vol. Longman, London, UK.

Ram Krishna Chakkilam, Suneetha, Y. and P. Srikanth (2017) Review of Lawsonia inermis Linn. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science 6(4):885-891. https://doi.org/10.20959/wjpps20174-8996

Rao, S.R. (2008) Agriculture in the Indus Civilization. In: History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian History of Agriculture in India (up to 1200 AD.) (Ed.Lallanji Gopal and V.C.Srivastava) PHISPC Centre for Studies in Civilization, Delhi, India, pp.171-202.

Rheede, H.A. (1678) Horti Malabarici Vol.I, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Rheede, H.A. (1688) Horti Malabarici Vol.III. Amsterdam.

Rheede, H.A.Van (1682) Horti Indici Malabarici Part-3 (Vol.3) Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Roxburgh, W. (1814) Hortus Bengalensis or a Catalogue of The Plants In The Honourable East India Company Botanic Garden at Calcutta. Serampore, India.

Roxburgh, W. (1832). Flora Indica. (Ed.W.Carey) Serampore. (Calcutta), India.

Roys Ralph L. (1931) The Ethno-Botany of the Maya. Middle American Research Institute. Publication No.2. Tulane University, New Orleans.

Sankalia, H.D., Deo, S.B., Ansari, Z.D. and Sophie Ehradt (1960) From history to prehistory at Nevasa (1954-56) Poon: Deccan College, Pune (M.S.) India.

Saraswat, K.S. (1988) Pre-Harappan Crop economy at ancient Rohira, Punjab (ca.2300-2200 BC.) In: Studies in Indian History and Culture (Ed.Rama Chandran) Navchetna Press, New Delhi. Pp.221-239.

Saraswat, K.S. (1992) Archaeobotanical remains in ancient cultural and socio-economical dynamics of the Indian subcontinent. Palaeobotanist 40:514-545.

Saraswat, K.S. (1997) Plant economy of Barans at ancient Sanghal (Ca. 1900-1400 BC.), Punjab, Pragdhara 7:97-114.

Saraswat, K.S. (2005) Agricultural background of the early farming communities in the Middle Gangetic Plain. Pragdhara 15:145-177.

Saraswat, K.S. and A.K.Pokharia (2002) Harappan plant economy at ancient Balu, Haryana. Pragdhara 12:153-172.

Saraswat, K.S. and A.K.Pokharia (2002) Harappan plant economy at ancient Balu, Haryana. Pragdhara 12:158-172.

Saraswat, K.S. and A.K.Pokharia (2003) Paleobotanical investigations at early Harappan Kunal. Pragdhara 13:105-139.

Saraswat, K.S., Sharma, N.K. and D.C. Saini (1994) Plant economy at ancient Narhan ca. 1300 BC. -300/400 AD.) In: Excavations at Narhan (1984-1989) (Ed.Singh P). Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. Pp.255-346.

Sauer Jonathan D. (1993) Historical Geography of Crop Plants: A Select Roster, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Sensarma Priyadarsan (1994) Ethnobotanical investigations into the Neelatantram. Ethnobotany 6:43-49.

Shamasastry, R. (1915) Kautilya’s Athashastra (Translated by Shamasastry, R.) Government Press. Bangalore, Karnatak, India. Pp.495-514.

Shamsastry, R. (1961) Kautilya’s Arthshastra. 7th Ed. Mysore Printing and Publishing House, Mysore, India.

Singh Anurudh K. (2016) Exotic ancient plant introductions: Part of Indian ‘Ayurveda’ medicinal system. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization And Utilization 14(4):356-369. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1479262116000368

Singh Anirudh K. and S.N.Nigam (2017) Ancient alien crop introductions integral to Indian agriculture: An Overview. Proc. Indian Natn.Sci.Acad. 83(3):549-568.

Singh, A.K. and S.Nigam (2017) Ancient alien crop introductions integral to Indian agriculture: An overview. Proc.Indian Natn.Sci.Acad. 83(3):549-568.

Singh, Ajay (2008) Plants In Ancient Indian Civilization. Agam Kala Prakashan, New Delhi, India.

Singh, M. and M.M.Sardesai (2016) Cannabis sativa (Cannabaceae) in ancient clay plaster of Ellora Caves, India Curr.Sci. 110(5):884-801.

Sitholey, R.V. (1976) Plants represented in ancient Indian Sculpture. Geophytology 6(1):15-26.

Sorenson John L. (2005) Ancient Voyages Across the Ocean To America: From ‘Impossible’ to ‘Certain’. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 14(1):4-17, 124-125.

Sudhir Chandra (2017) History of agriculture in the Indian subcontinent. In: Foundations of Ethnobotany – 21st Century Perspective (Ed.A.K.Jain). Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India.

Torkelson Anthony R. (1999) Plants In Indian Medicine A-Z. Vol.IV. the Cross-Name Index to Medicinal Plants. CRC Press Boca Raton, Florida.

Ugemge, N.R. (1986) Flora of Nagpur District. Shree Prakashan, Nagpur (Maharashtra) India.

Vaidya, P.L. (Ed.) Divyavadan (200 AD.) Mithila Institute of P.G.Studies and Research In Sanskrit Learning, Darbhanga, Bihar, India.

Vats, M.S. (1941) Excavations of Harappa 1&2 Govt. of India.

Vishnu-Mittre (1968) Kaundinyapur plant economy in pre-Historic and Historic times. In:Kaundinyapur Excavation (Ed.Dikshit, M.G.), Bombay, India: pp.140-147.

Vishnu-Mittre and R.Savithri (1982) Food economy of the Harappans. In: Harappan Civilization (Ed.G.L.Possehl) Oxford & IBH Publ.Co.Pvt.Ltd., New Delhi, India.

Voight, J.O. (1845) Hortus suburbanus Calcuttensis, Calcutta, India.

Watt, G. (1889-1893) A Dictionary of The Economic Products of India, Vol.1-6, Calcutta, India.

Watt, G. (1908) A Dictionary of Economic Products: The Commercial Plants of India. John Murray, London, UK.

Winternitz, M. (1927). A History of Indian Literature (Translated into English from Original German by Mrs.S.Ketkar) Calcutta University, Calcutta.

www.newsfindr.org/site/more/the_art_of_mehandi

www.newfinder.org/site/ more/the_art_of_mehndi/

Published
2019-01-15
How to Cite
Patil, D. A. (2019). Scientific History of Some Alien Plants In India: Origin, Implications And Culture. Plantae Scientia, 1(05), 66-75. https://doi.org/10.32439/ps.v1i05.66-75
Section
Research Articles